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Optimization of Process Parameters of Blow Room and Carding Machine in Cotton Spinning Process for Waste Minimization
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    Issue » May , 2013   »   Technical Articles

  • Optimization of Process Parameters of Blow Room and Carding Machine in Cotton Spinning Process for Waste Minimization

    Md.Ayub Ali1, Dr. Abdus Shahid, Department of Textile Engineering, Dhaka University of Engineering & Technology.

     1Corresponding author: mayubtex11@yahoo.com

    Abstract: This paper describes the outcomes of an investigation on the amount of total extracted wastage percentage in blow room and carding section by varying the setting gauge on different setting points of blow room and carding machinery. Emphasis was given to optimize the setting value in different setting points for a particular fiber and machinery. The effect of cylinder speed, grid bar, winch, mote knives, flats, back top knife and suction, front suction setting gauge on wastage percentage, SCN (count/gm), Trash (count/gm), NRE% were studied and tested by Uster HVI and AFIS which have been presented in this paper. Experimented investigation shows that 1-2% wastage can be reduced by using particular tools and setting value. The study was focused to place norms of setting parameters for particular fiber to reduce wastage, keeping constant quality which will make the spinning process more profitable and cost effective. Keywords:  Wastage, Grid bar, Winch angle, mote knives, flats, SCN, NRE%, trash (count/gm), HVI, AFIS. Introduction: Raw cotton represents about 50-75% of the manufacturing cost of a short-staple yarn. This fact alone is sufficient to indicate the significance of the raw material for the yarn producer. The influence becomes still more apparent when the ease in processing one type of the fiber material is compared with the difficulties, annoyance, additional effort and decline in productivity with another similar material [7].So efficient use of raw cottons must be made during processing. This is achieved by the proper selection of raw cotton and by processing it in particular setting and condition for minimum loss but keeping acceptable quality. Truly, no relevant articles beyond this topic were found in the author searching capacity. Wastages are generally produced during cotton processing for several reasons. It is the integrated mixer of micro, short, medium and longer fibers along with some other matters. According to investigation there are four major factors for which wastages are generated and varied in amount, these are raw cotton attributes, machine condition, ambient condition and material handling governed by work force. Controlling above mentioned four responsible factors it is possible to control and minimize wastage extraction percentage. Only by using modern machinery, wastage amount up to 1.5% in blow room and 3% in carding section can be saved [3]. Optimal conditions can be obtained through mastery of the raw material [7]. Optimization does not refer only wastage reduction. It is found that, optimization of process parameters results in economic wastage reduction and brings control in the processing stages with better quality assurance. The purpose of this study is to investigate and optimize the proper setting in different machinery in two different sections for a particular fiber. 2.   Methodology: The paper is based on the experimental study on a selective factory equipped with Trutzschler Blow room and carding machinery.  Raw cotton of CIS origin was collected, processed and tested in this machinery. Wastage percentage along with fiber quality was observed in different machine setting for each change in setting gauge in various setting points. 2.1Sample selection (Fiber): The CIS cotton having following attributes was used during this investigation. Table 1: Specification of the fiber: Origin CIS (Uzbek) Length 29.74 mm UHML 1.17 inch Micronaire 4.34 Maturity 0.87 Trash grade 1 Trash (cnt/gm) 10 SFI 8.2 C-grade 12-1  2.2 Processing stages:   Fig.2.1: Hierarchy of carded ring spinning process The factory where the experiment was done was producing their carded yarn as most other industries as mentioned in figure 2.1. 2.3 Instrumentation: The Following machinery were used during experiment. 2.3.1 Processing machinery: Fig.2.2: Hierarchy of Trutzschler machine in carded ring spinning process 2.3.2 Testing machinery: Two testing equipments that are mentioned below were used during this experiments-  a. Uster HVI machine  b. Uster AFIS machine   2.4: Four major factors of wastage generation and control: Fiber attributes Machine setting Ambient condition Pattern of material handling  2.5:Causes why emphasizes are given to process parameters during spinning:   To produce good quality yarn. To improve processing performance. To reduce the customer complain.  To reduce process time. To make better use of auxiliaries equipments. To ensure better use of machinery and man power.   2.6: Causes of excessive wastage extraction in blow room: There are many reasons for which wastages are generated in Blow room section. From the practical point of view the following reasons are most important. Too wide setting of grid bar in CL-P. Missing grid bar. High short fiber content. Improper cylinder speed in CVT-3. Incorrect gauge between feed rollers to 1st cylinder in CVT-3. Improper ambient condition. Wider winch angle setting in CVT-3.  2.7: Causes of excessive wastage extraction in carding: There are many reasons for which wastages are generated in Blow room section. From the practical point of view extracted during experiment the following reasons are most important. Wider winch angle (deflector blade) setting. Incorrect delivery speed. Gauge in changeable points. Amount of trash removed in Blow room section. Incorrect setting in mote knives.  2.8: Variables in the experiment: Below mentioned factors are the soul responsible parameters of this project whose variations indicates how much wastages will be removed during the process ing. a. Raw Cotton attributes: Fiber properties and their growing area affects vastly on the total amount of wastages extracted in blow room and carding section. Two different fibers having same staple length can come with different wastage percentage, if other influencing parameter varies. b. Machinery condition: Experiment shows machinery condition has dramatic affects on wastage percentage. Fibers having the same quality and standards varied in wastage only for well run and effective machinery condition. By using updated machinery it is possible to reduce 1.5% wastage in blow room and up to 3% in carding without any quality deterioration [3]. c. Customer demand: It indicates the amount of total wastage extraction during processing. Albeit, fibers attributes and machinery condition remain in standards yet spinners need to produce yarn by extracting wastage percentage as per buyer requirement. d. Allied plant: For instance, if a factory poses a rotor project which is run by the wastages obtained from ring spinning process then more wastage need to get to run the particular rotor project.  e. Spinners efficiency: A major important parameter upon which wastage extraction without quality deterioration depends is spinner’s efficiency. All of the production organs can be effectively used to extract minimum wastage if and only if well efficient spinners exist. 3. Results & discussion The following outcomes were attained during investigation on different gauges in different setting points. Setting change was done on Grid bar, cylinder speed and winch angle of CL-P and CVT-3 machine in blow room section. In carding section, deflector blade size was changed; one is on the top of 2nd Licker-in and another one is bottom of the 3rd Licker-in. Fig.3.1: Effect of grid bar setting on wastage in CL-P machine               Fig.3.2: Effect of grid bar setting on SCN value in CL-P       Fig.3.3: Effect of winch setting in CVT-3 machine Fig.3.4: Effect of setting between feed roller and 1st cylinder Fig.3.5: Effect of setting between feed roller and 1st cylinder   Fig.3.6: Effect of cylinder rpm on wastage in CVT-3 Fig.3.7: Effect of cylinder rpm on wastage in CVT-3 Table 2: Fiber Saving Amount % with particular deflector blade size.   4. Recommendations: 4.1 Suggestive ways of wastage reduction and control in blow room:   1. To reduce wastage, CVT-3 winch basic setting should be kept standard. The gauge   usually beater to deflector blade is 1.5mm. 2. Apply Cylinder speed, depend on fiber maturity and fiber length. 3. Apply Feed roller to1st cylinder gauge in CVT-3 depend on fiber length.  4. The opening and cleaning intensity depends, apart from other parameters, on distance between beater and feed roller, speed of beater and grid bars setting.  5. The Trutzschler’s waste sensor WASTECONTROL BR-WCT is attached to a Cleaner CLEANOMAT and optically measures good fibers in the waste and amount of suction for fibers. 4.2 Effective ways of wastage reduction in carding section: The following steps can be taken into count to optimize the setting a. Assurance of even feeding. b. Deflector size needs to be changed, such as 40.5X1065 mm size should be used instead of 45.5X1065 mm, thus wastage reduced. c. Wider back top knife gauge and closed suction hood gauge reduce the wastage %. d. Determined delivery speed with the best quality.   5. Conclusions: Using deflector blade in carding having width 45.5mm with some changes of other setting points minimize considerable amount of waste i.e. around 2% in carding section keeping the quality acceptable. Modification of Card DK-803 reduces wastage by 1.84% with acceptable quality. It would be a benchmark for cotton spinning industry. The Industrialized person can take it consider to maintain this setting alteration to minimize wastage and cost.   6. References: [1] Leder,A. Lowering Energy Costs through Innovation. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.textileworld.com (accessed 30 October 2012).  [2] Express Textile. How to improve yarn realization and control wastes?. [ONLINE] Available at: http://www.expresstextile.com (accessed 30 October 2012).  [3] Marzoli Corporation. More Quality less Waste.[ONLINE] Available at: http://www.marzoli.com (accessed 30 October 2012).  [4] Shanmuganandam, D. How to improve yarn realization and control waste?.[ONLINE] Available at: http://www.fiber2fashion.com (accessed 30 October 2012).   [5]   Chowdhury, R. and Khan,A.N. Effect of conditioning by mixing two different  origin cotton fiber on yarn quality. Bangladesh Textile Today.2008; 1(4):43-47   [6] Paul,T.K. Recent Developments in Ring Spinning.[ONLINE] Available at:  http//:www.textiletodaybd.com (accessed 02 November 2012).   [7]  Klein,W.The technology of short staple spinning, Manual of Textile Technology. Vol.1. Manchester,UK. The Textile Institute;. 1998   [8]   Titu,B.U. As Essential Method for Spinning Mills. 1st ed. Banglabazar. Jogajog Pulishers; 2008    [9]    Rahman,M. Textile Testing and Quality Control-4. 3rd ed. Banglabazar. Prime Publications; 2008  [10] Chowdhury,R.and Khan,A.N. Principles of Short Staple Spinning. 2nd ed.vol.1 Dhaka. Md.Ibrahim Howlader Nobin (Ehan); 2009          [11] Klein,W. A practical guide of opening and carding, Manual of Textile Technology. Manchester,UK. The Textile Institute; 1998 [12] Lord,P.R. Spinning.  London. Woodhead Publishing and Textile Institute; 2004 [13] Venkatasubramani,A. Spun Yarn Technology.Vol.1&2.Madurai. Saravana Publications; 1998  [14] Azad,F. Yarn Manufacture-2. Dhaka.BTEB; 2001 [15] Baumann.Uster Laboratory System. Symposium Bangladesh,November 2008.pp.20-25

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