Now a day demand for All Over Printing’ (AOP) is increasing. Although rotary, flatbed and screen printing were used before, nowadays the digital inject ‘All Over Printing’ has been added with them.
In the early days of the garments manufacturing industry in Bangladesh, very few factories used to work on All Over Printing (AOP). During the time, printed fabrics were made only for the local market, not for the global market.
In the 80s when the Readymade Garments (RMG) manufacturing in Bangladesh was getting bigger step-by-step, at the same time printing projects were also gaining momentum. When the rolling printing technology became extinct, printing technologies like flatbed machines for fabric printing became common. Besides, printing fabric with the rotary screen-printing machine also started. Though there are some limitations to these two methods.
In any method of textile printing, the design is developed first. That is why design is regarded as the heart of printing. To create a good textile printing design a designer/artist needs to have a clear concept on some step by step processes. A designer with his/her aesthetic beauty and artistic idea canvassing a printing design sketch. By tweaking additions, exclusions and changes a sketch can be more visually aesthetic. In cases of export, the design of buyers given fabric sample/artwork (softcopy) is developed and needed for doing screen preparation.
In Bangladesh, there are no specific academies/institutes to learn textile printing design. In textile universities, there are no syllabus or equipment. Just some basic ideas are given. In consequence, the textile printing sector lags behind in comparison to other apparel manufacturing countries. Sometimes local designs depend on neighboring India.
To develop quality textile printing, printing academies are a must. Design is a 100% creative branch and more and more research will ensure quality.
The things which are important for textile printing design:
- Clear idea on which designs are possible on a fabric
- Rotary screen and flatbed screen measurement calculation
- Accurate knowledge on a repeat of design and number of colors
- The idea on if the colors viscosity-squeeze presser, mesh selection is not perfect after the design is printed on fabric
- Knowing the difference between chest print and all over print
- Expertise in graphic software
- Creative mentality
- Design development process
- Screen preparation idea
- Idea of colors for each method
- Method printing design
- Consumer classification
- Knowledge on season
- Consumer age
- Popular design demand
- Type of fabric
- Types of garment to be made
- Suitable design for suitable fabric
- Understanding of different cultures
- Difference between local and export design
- Understanding of color matching
Essential to know while developing AOP
Bangladesh’s garment sector is dependent on buyers’ requirements. All over printing, it is important to know which printing design is possible or not for the related production person, marketing department and merchandisers.
When receiving designs from buyers, a clear understanding of these below 10 things are crucial. If one is missing, then it creates a problem.
- If there is no repeat
Generally, all over print design, a specific repeat design must have been in the design area. Without specific repeat, design can’t be developed in fabric because the rotary screen diameter is fixed. Repeat area must be identified by following the procedure before developing the fabric. We should inform the buyer for the clearance about design if you cannot identify any repeat in the design.
Procedure of repeat identification: At first, we have to look over the design to identify the repeat by target a fixed motif and following it’s like design besides the right side and lower side, when you will find the same design, that means this design has repeat.
- If there is no design repeat measurement
If ‘image size’ is not given or say ‘standard size’, then we click the image size and see the image size on the display. Design repeat measurement is must necessary to complete the design. Design calculation is always calculated in height.
Let’s see an example of why repeat measurement is necessary-
Think, repeat design height is 17 cm.
Rotary screen diameter + Repeat Height= 64.15 ÷ 17=3.78, now this result would be again divided by the screen diameter.
The buyer requirement was 17cm but to be printed on Rotary screen machine, this measurement could be 21.38cm or 16.03cm.
In this case, it must be informed of the buyer. Otherwise, design could not be possible to develop.
- If there is no clear design file or image
There are two types of images. They are Raster and vector image. A number of colors can easily identify from vector image and it consumes less time to develop the design. When a buyer gives a raster image, then you should ask them to send the vector image.
Otherwise, it must be mentioned that it takes more time than a vector image to develop the design.
- If there is no print paste-type
There are six kinds of all over print paste. They are:
- Pigment Print
- Reactive Print
- Discharge Print
- Raised Print
- Glitter Print
- Burn Out Print
The types of print paste which will be used for printing, you must be confirmed from the buyer. Because in different paste recipes, costing is different and all pastes are not applicable for all fabrics. Print paste type will be depending on fabric types. Normally pigments paste are mostly used in the industry.
- lf there is no fabrication
To know about the fabrication like knit, woven, single jersey, polyester, etc. where the design will be print is must be known from the buyer. Because different fabric requires different types of print paste. For example, due to shrinkage of lycra, 15% excess fabric needs to consider during the designing time. So, fabric types are an important factor for printing.
- lf there is no number of print color
The total number of colors used in a design should be count from the sample. Its mandatary to know because the machine has a limited capacity number of screen and color. Normally rotary screen-printing machine and flatbed printing machine have 12-16 color capacity for printing.
If it crosses the limitation, production is not possible. The number of colors and Pantone should be equal. If it is not equal, you must ask the buyer the missing Pantone number or sample swatch for that color.
- lf there is no reference of base/ground dyeing color
It is obligatory to have knowledge of which color will be the ground color or base color for printing. In the case of the dark ground color, the dark print paste cannot give expected print color. So light ground or base color is preferable to get a prospective result.
- lf there is no fabric GSM and fabric diameter
Screen diameter and fabric diameter should be checked. If fabric diameter is excess than then fabric will not be printed on the entire area. Costs are also depending on GSM of fabric. Because low GSM fabric length is more than low GSM fabric where print paste requires more. So costing is high.
- If there is no mention the category of sample
Different categories of samples like hand sample, machine sample and production sample are used in textile printing. Which type of sample needs to develop, this information is necessary. Hand sample is a very common type of sample to develop the design, it requires low cost. But machine sample is very costly. The small screen price is about 5000 taka and the large screen is BDT 8000. That means huge cost requires for machine sample preparation.
- If there are no Panton or color swatches
TCX and TPX both are Panton color standards, but they are made for a different purpose. The suffix TP stands for Textile Paper and the suffix TC stands for Textile Cotton. Both are designators from the Pantone color system. There is a slight difference between the paper and fabric versions of the system. However, for CAD applications, the difference should be minor.
A note of caution: When specifying and conduct all approvals from either the TC or TP version of Pantone Fashion. TCX is usually used in reactive disperse as a standard color swatch, whereas TPX is used as a standard for pigment. TPX brightness is 15% higher than TCX.
These 10 points must be ensured to develop all over print design.