The term textile printing we can understand that, prints on fabric with a combination of design and color. Printing is the process of painting a design drawn by an artist and fixation to the fabric or materials with a mixture of different chemicals and dyes with the help of applying different types of machinery and technology.
Textile printing can be done in various methods but for that at first, need to develop the design. That’s why design is called the Heart of Printing. To create a textile printing design, a Designer or Artist must consistently have a good idea about some process
A designer develops a sketch of a printing design in the light of his artistic idea and aesthetic beauty. By adding or eliminating or changing any part of the design, a design makes more aesthetic. In the case of export design, the screen preparation has to be done by the fabric sample or artwork (softcopy) which is provided by the buyer.
In our country, there is no specific academy or institute for teaching textile printing design. Our country has no syllabus or equipment to teach Textile printing design practically in the Fine Art department or Textile Engineering department.
Only basic ideas are given in theses department. As a result, we are far behind other countries in textile printing. we are very much dependent on the neighboring country India to develop Local design.
To improve the quality of textile printing design in our country, we need to make an institutional designer or artist. With that need, more design research and also design has to be considered as a creative art. By this, the quality of printing design will be improved day by day.
To create a textile printing design, a designer needs to have a clear idea about all of these things given below: –
- A designer needs to have an idea about that in fabric this design, is it possible/ not possible to print.
- Measurement of Rotary screen and Flatbed screen and Measurement Calculation of these need to know.
- Designers have to be capable to find out the Repeat of Design and also have to recognize the exact number of colors in a Repeat.
- After design print on fabric, due to variation of Viscosity-Squeeze pressure of color and if Mesh selection is not perfect, what will happen or which problem will arise, a designer must have an idea about that.
- A designer needs to know the difference between Chest print and All overprint.
- Must have good skills in computer operation (basically Graphic software).
- A designer must have a creative mindset.
- Designers need to knowledge about the design process.
- Must have the idea of screen preparation.
- How many colors can be printed in the various method?
- The printing method of the design.
- Need to know about the user classes of the design.
- Need to know about design according to the season.
- Need to have an idea for which age person of the design will be made.
- which type of design demand is high.
- Need to know the fabric on which this design will be developed.
- Usage purpose of this design.
- What types of design suitable according to fabric types?
- What kind of design are used in various countries?
- For which community this design will be used.
- The difference between Local design and Export design.
- Clear idea about color matching.
- Designers need to have artistic thinking and knowledge about technology to create a design.
The garments and textile sectors of our country depend on the requirements of the buyers. Our export factories produce products according to the 100% buyer’s requirements. Here any changes aren’t possible. Also, in the case of all overprinting, the design is provided from the buyer and we just print this to the fabric.
So, in All overprinting, Related- production person, Marketing department and Merchandiser need to know which Design is Possible to print and which Design is not Possible and why. This knowledge helps to make a decision faster to the related person, finally, its helps to make production faster.
All over printing (AOP) is a very important sector in the textile sector. once upon a time, all over printing (AOP) was done in a few factories in the textile sector of Bangladesh. At that time fabric was not printed for export quality.
Fabric Print was done for our local market such as sari, Than Kaapor, three-piece, bed sheet, etc. In the 80’s century, the Garment Industry was gradually established in our country and from this era, the printing project was also upgraded day by day. After the abolition of Roller printing, the technology changed and fabric printing started in the flatbed machine.
Then simultaneously Rotary screen printing started with the Flatbed printing machine. However, there are several limitations in fabric printing while using a Rotary screen print and Flatbed screenprint machine.
Here some Machine name are list out with their origin:
|Brand name: Rotary
7. Ji- long………China
|Brand name: Flatbed
1. KUIL………….South Korea
6. ZIMMER……. Austria
Now, Some Comparison/ discussion between Rotary screen printing and Flatbed screen printing are discussed in below: –
|Rotary Screen-Printing Machine||Flatbed Screen Printing Machine|
|01. The screen of Rotary screen-printing machine is Round or Circle shaped and the screens are made of Nickel||01. The screen of the Flatbed screen printing machine is Flat. Screen are made of polyester or bolting cloth which is attached to the aluminum frame with 100% tension|
|02. During developing the design for the rotary screen, the developer creates a repeat of the design by calculating the diameter of the screen. The diameter or Circumference of the Rotary screen is -641 mm, 820mm, 914mm and 1018mm.||02. Any kind of design measurement can be developed in a flatbed screen. For those different sizes of screens are used.|
|03. The number of color print capacity of the rotary screen is 20 colors. But due to the complexity of Machine Setting, usually, printing is done no more than using 12 colors.||03. Flatbed screen printing can print more than 12 colors.|
|04. Fabric print speed is faster than Flatbed printing. The Fabric Printing rate per minute is 30-60 meters. Fabrics print faster when the design contains a lower number color.||04. Fabric print speed lower than Rotary screen print. The fabric print rate per minute is 15-20 yards.|
|05. Colors automatically passing to the rotary screen from the drum with the help of a machine compressor and color wastage is higher in rotary screen printing.||05.Color is given manually on the flatbed screen during printing. Here, color wastage is lower.|
|07. Cost of the Rotary screen is high. Per Screen, the cost is approximately 5k-6k TK in BDT. It depends on the diameter of the rotary screen.||07. The cost of a flatbed screen is less than a rotary screen. Per Screen, the cost is approximately 3k-4k TK in BDT.|
|07. Rotary screen does not have the Possibility to shows Repeat mark or Join mark during Print.||07. During Printing if the print was 100% body coverage design then the Repeat mark or Join mark will show.|
|08. Smoothness or Sharpness of the Design is relatively lower.||08. Smoothness and Sharpness of the Design in Flat Bed Screen Printing Machine is relatively good.|
|09. Rotary screen printing m/c can be printed with this color
A) Pigment color
B) Reactive color.
C) Discharge color
D) Resist color
|09. Flatbed screen printing m/c can be printed with this color
A) Pigment color.
B) Reactive color.
C) Discharge color
D) Resist color.
In Flatbed screen printing (Discharge, Glitter, White paste and Apson) print Smoothness and Sharpness shows relatively good then the Rotary screen.
|10. The more the color of the design, the fabric wastage is more during setting the design in fabric printing.||10. The fabric wastage is lower during setting the design in fabric printing.|
|11. Many types of machinery are used to expose the rotary screen. E.g.: –
A. Exposing machine-Inkjet or Laser
B. Cool dryer machine/Climatizer
C. Coating machine.
D. Polymerizer machine.
E. Light stand and developing stand.
F. Water tank/ Screen developing tank.
G. Endring fixer/ Endring gluing machine.
H. Unpacking Machine.
I. Screen checking stand.
|11. In, Flatbed screen exposing uses a few types of machinery.|
|12. All kinds of the design can’t be printed on a rotary screen-printing machine.||12. Flatbed screen printing machine can be print any kind of design. Such as – Sari, Three pieces, Orna, Bed Sheet, Then Cloth, etc.|
|13. Any types of fabric can be printed.||13. Any types of / kinds of fabric can be printed. But, in Knit fabric the sharpness and print quality is good.|
|14. There is a possibility to break the screen while the machine running||14. There is no possibility to break the screen while the machine running.|
|15. For color penetration, various sizes of stainless steel rollers or blade squeegee are used inside the screen.||15. Fabric print is done automatically by pressurizing of rubber Squeegee on the frame.|
|16. Due to the machine runs very fast, screen rotation is also fast, so, after printing done certain times some pinholes come out on the screen, for this reason, remove the screen from the machine and to remove the pinhole by re-touching is required. Then the machine starts again for further production.||16. Fabric print is done by ups and downs of the flatbed screen and fabric is printed slowly. So the possibility of coming out Pinholes on the screen is lower than the rotary screen machine.|
|17. Screen preparation process is complicated. It takes more time to expose and develop the screen. Approximately every screen takes 25 to 35 minutes to expose.||17. Screen preparation process is easier. Approximately every screen takes 20 to 40 minutes to expose.|
|18. After developing the screen and before setting on the rotary machine need to harden the coating chemical of the screen, for that each screen curing is done by setting on the polymerizer machine for 20 to 30 minutes.||18. After developing the screen and before setting on the flatbed machine coating chemicals are harden by using the Hardener chemical.|
|19. Need to coating the screen by using Photo Emulsion RS-100 and RS-1203 before exposing the screen. To coating, each screen has required approximately 200 grams of Chemical.||19. Need to coating the screen by using Photo Emulsion SP-1300-HV and TXR before exposing the screen. To coating, each screen has required approximately 200 grams of Chemical.
|20. CMYK’s Design can’t be print perfectly on a Rotary screen-printing machine.||20. CMYK’s Design can be print perfectly on a Flatbed screen printing machine.|
|21. Rotary screen-printing m/c is unprofitable for short quantity production.||21. Flatbed machine printing m/c is profitable for short quantity production.|
|22. The initial installation cost of the Rotary screen-printing machine is very high. So, this is expensive.||22. The initial installation cost of the Flatbed screen printing machine is low. So, this is inexpensive.|
|23. Vertical stripe easily can be done by a Rotary screen-printing machine. No Join mark or Repeat mark is shown.||23. Vertical stripe easily can’t be print by Flatbed screen printing machine because the Join mark or Repeat mark is shown.|
|24. Disperse or Reverse printing is goodly done on a Rotary screen-printing machine.||24. Disperse or Reverse printing is not goodly done on Flatbed screen printing machine.|
|25. Color separation can be done within a short time.||25. For color separation it takes more time.|
|26. Critical design in laser exposing machine such as 1-pixel line, 1-pixel dot, or spray, the screen does not open perfectly on the screen. As a result, sometimes the development screen design doesn’t fully match the main design/ buyer design.||26. In Laser exposing machine, critical design such as 1-pixel line, 1-pixel dot, or spray, open perfectly on the screen. As a result, after developing the screen, the type of line or dot in the design are fully matched to the buyer design/ main design.|
|26. If the fabric is printed in the rotary screen-printing machine, there is a possibility of failure in the heavy metal (Nickel) test of the fabric.||26. If fabric print on a Flatbed screen printing m/c, there is no possibility to present metal(nickel) in fabric. So, surely the Nickel test will be passed.|
|26. Rotary screen-printing machine has a limitation of squeegee pressure.||26.There are no limitations of squeegee pressure in Flatbed screen printing m/c.|
|29. After production, the screen needs to wash perfectly with water, either, the open area of the screen becomes blocked and Production can’t be done next time.
|29. After production, the screen needs to wash perfectly with water, either, the open area of the screen becomes blocked and Production can’t be done next time.|
|30 A screen can be reused 3/4 times.||30 A screen can be reused 3/4 times.|