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All-Over Printing vs All Over Digital Printing (Part-1)

All-Over Printing (AOP) has been started in our (Bangladesh) garment industry from the 1980s. Although before this we used AOP in many fabrics i.e. three-piece, Sharee, bed cover and fabrics print in the local factory.

All-Over-Printing-All-Over-Digital-Printing
Figure: Due to increasing demand, many Bangladeshi all over printing factories have started digital printing.

The interests, preferences and desires of the people are evolved. Fashion awareness is changing day by day, especially in the young generation. So, the demand of all over printing around the world is increasing day by day. Bangladesh is not far behind the trend. Approximately 90 factories have AOP printing facility.

Companies with AOP printing facility in Bangladesh

Unifill Composite Dyeing Mills Ltd. SIM Group Thermax Group Ltd. HH Textile Mills Ltd.
Sanjana Fabrics Ltd. Beximco Textile Division Rahim Textile Mills Ltd. Divine Group
Hossain Dyeing & Printing Mills Tania Textiles Ltd. Knit Concern Group Unicon Group
Pakiza Knit Composite Ltd. DBL Group GMS Composite Knitting Industries Ltd. NR Group
Robintex Group Chaity Group APS Group Comfit Composite Knit Ltd.
South China Bleaching & Dyeing Factory Ltd. Mithela Textile Industries Ltd. M. M. Knitwear Ltd. Monno Fabrics Ltd.
Rim Dyeing Ltd. F.K.N Textile Ltd. Apex Holdings Ltd. Four H Group
Utah Group Dird Composite Textiles Ltd. Palmal Group of Industries Mosharaf Composite Textile Mills Ltd.
KDS Group Opex & Sinha Textile Group Impress-Newtex Composite Ltd. Tru Fabric Ltd
Zaber & Zubair Fabrics Ltd. Chorka Textile Ltd. Jamuna Group Satter Textile Mills Ltd.
M.S. Dyeing, Printing & Finishing Ltd. Amanat Shah Fabrics Ltd. ACS Textiles (Bangladesh) Ltd. A-One Polar Ltd.
Sawfttex Ltd. Pride Group Mondal Group Metro knitting and dyeing Ltd.
Nz Group Intramex Textile Ltd. RK Group Phonex Textile Ltd.
Lithe Group AJI Group Silver Composite Textile Mills Ltd (Unit-3, Textile) Croni Group
All Tex Group Infinia Group S B style Composite Ltd. Azad Rifat Fibers
Imperil Bornali Fabric Bomby Fabric S B style Composite Ltd.
Padma Bleaching & Dyeing Mills Ltd. Experience Textile Ltd. Tithi Textile Mills Pvt Ltd. Antim Group
Consumer Textile mills ltd. Fariha Knit Tex Ltd. PN Composite ltd. Nice Fabrics processing Limited.
Doel group Unity Fabric Ltd. Primer Dyeing & Printing Mills Ltd. Bengal Apparel Ltd.
Urmi Knitwear Ltd. Noor Group Regent Textile LTD. Younusco Group

In these factories AOP is done by rotary screen machine and flatbed screen machine.

There are some limitations in AOP. The main limitation is we cannot print all designs on a rotary screen or flatbed screen. Although it is possible to print 8-20 colors on a rotary screen or flatbed screen, it is generally not more than 12 colors to be printed for 2 reasons.

A) The print cost is higher

B) Complexity of machine. The effect of photo print and 3D cannot be brought clearly through AOP.

Sawkat-Hossain-Sohel-Unifill-Composite-Dyeing-Mills-Ltd
Figure 2: Sawkat Hossain Sohel, Chief Designer, Unifill Composite Dyeing Mills Ltd.

Due to all these different challenges, rotary and flatbed have been added to the new technology ‘All Over Digital Printing’. Currently, 60% of digital print is done in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Pakistan and Vietnam.

Due to increasing demand, many Bangladeshi all over printing factories have started digital printing. Digital print is directly printed in fabric with ink.

No film or screen is used for this. An ideal technology for multi-dimensional design printing is ‘All Over Digital Printing’.

Difference between ‘All Over Printing’ and ‘All Over Digital Printing’
All-Over Printing All Over Digital Printing
1.  Screen is required for AOP 1. Screen is not required in this printing
2. Every design needs to convert into a 100% vector image. The number of file separation different screens are used for a different color. 02. Digital design development process is different as:

Ø  Most of the designs are done by Photoshop software. Sometimes Adobe Illustrator software is also used.

Ø  Color separation doesn’t require. The work has to be done on the main image or the file of the design.

Ø  The brightness/contrast of the design file has to increase or decrease to match the color of the main sample. Example: The color contrast-which is used for woven fabrics-is not the same for the knitted fabrics. Another type of color contrast is used for knitted fabric.

Ø  Decision has to be made depending on the texture of the design that which mode should be used in developing design RGB mode or CMYK mode.

Ø  Most of the designs are used 8 inks in the printing on fabrics. They are: A) Cyan B) Magenta C) Red D) Yellow E) Black F) Orange G) Blue H) Grey

3. Any fabric can be printed by AOP 3) All types of fabric can be print except blended fabric like PC, CVC, etc.
4. This printing is possible on deep-dyed fabrics or black fabrics. 4) The quality of digital printing on deep-colored fabrics is not good enough.
5. White print can be done on any type of fabric. 5) White color print is not possible.
6. a) Pigment, Reactive, Discharge, Glitter, Apson, Burn out, Nion Print and Resist printing can be done by AOP.

                          

6)  Reactive, Acid, Disperse and pigment can be done by digital printing.
7. Singeing and mercerization of fabric is not so necessary for better quality print. 7) Singeing and mercerization of fabric is very important for better quality print.
8. Decision has to be made depending on the artwork of the design that what mode should be developed RGB or CYMK.  No matter which model we use in developing design, the file of the design has to be converted into the vector image. 8) RGB and CMYK both modes are possible in this printing to develop a design. To get a better quality of printing on fabrics, the file of the design printing needs to be cleared.

 

9. The resolution should be 360,508,720 pixels/inch in developing a design. The higher the resolution, the higher the time it will take in screen preparation. During screen exposure, the file of the design should be converted into a tiff format. If the outline of the resolution will have to be 508 or 720 pixels/inch to get a better output. 9. The resolution has to 300-1200 pixel /

inch when developing the design.  Depending on the quality of the printing, the resolution is selected. The higher the resolution, it takes higher time in developing design, the production is slowed down and a better quality of printing is achieved.

10. In AOP, color is created by matching the shade with the Pantone (TCX, TPX) or color swatches and then printing is done. 10. In digital printing, the buyer provides the artwork and color is matching by following the artwork.
11. The speed of this printing is higher 30-70-meter printing is done per minute. 11. The production rate is lower. The

production depends on the machine head. The higher the number of heads, the higher the production. Generally, the production rate is (1-3) m/min. The production rate of MS Lario machine is around140 m/min. Only Robin Tex has the machine.

12) The production can be done at any temperature and humidity of the floor. 12.  The printing has to do in the AC room. Temperature 25°C and Relative Humidity (RH) 65%±2% required.                                                                            Otherwise, it will affect on print heads and color continuity.
13) Higher manpower is required. Engraving section, color section and sample section are needed. 13. Lower manpower required.
14. Before printing, fabric requires a pre-treatment as a dyeing process. 14. Before printing, fabric requires the pre-treatment process also here. But here needs less chemical than traditional printing for coating. Thickener, Urea, Sodium Bicarbonate and water are needed for coating. Sometimes resist salts are also used depending on types of thickener.
15. Fabric is printed through squeeze pressure. 15. Fabric printing is done through head

up-down.

 

16. Water and electricity are used more. 16. Uses of water is 90% less and electricity is 30% less.
17. Natural and synthetic both thickener is suitable for color continuity. 17. Natural thickener is more suitable for color continuity.
18. Color is limited. 18. No limitation of color. As a result, better sharpness can be attained.
19. Need curing after printing. 19. Need steaming after printing. Fixation is done in steaming.

Here are some samples of all-over printing and all-over digital printing designs.

all-over-printing-all-over-digital-printing-design

Continuous process flow chart for All-Over Digital Printing

Grey fabric batching – Heat setting (if lycra) — Gas singeing – Scouring – Bleaching/OBA – Drying – Chemical padding (with gumming and cutting of selvage) – Digital reactive printing – Steaming (loop steamer machine) – Washing – Drying and chemical finishing (stenter machine) – Compacting finishing – Inspection and quality checking – Ready for delivery.

Continuous-process-All-Over-Digital-Printing

Textile digital printing is a modern technology just like printing a paper through the color printer. On the other hand, digital printing is a new technology of representing 2D-effect, 3D-effect, multi-dimensional designs, photo print as well on different kinds of fabrics by using the technology of ink. Though it’s a new technology, the All-Over Digital Printing has so many advantages and some limitations too. The list of advantages and disadvantages of Digital Printing is given below:

Here is a list of some of the advantages and disadvantages of digital Printing: 

Advantages Disadvantages
High print quality. The printing speed is low.
Lower water and power consumption. Ink cost is very high. But it decreasing regularly.
Less Chemical waste. The problem of the combined new and old technology.
Large repeat size are possible. Color accuracy maintain is very difficult.
Reduced production space requirements. The print cost is very high. But it reducing day by day.  In small lots and sampling, Digital printer is far convenient and cost-effective than conventional forms.
Less printed inventory.   White color can`t print.
Sampling and production were done on the same printer. All types of fabric can be print except blended fabrics.
Design innovation.

 

Need to maintain temperature and humidity for a print unit.
Low capital investment Poor fatigue properties.
Nickle free Lack of efficient manpower

 

No limit on color Different fabrics behave differently to the colors of inks; hence, color changes are there in digital print, despite the digital print file being the same
Reduced manpower Difficult to get high color yield if it does not use the suitable coating chemical and steaming not perfect.

To be continued…

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