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Establishing the benchmark on the usage of process water in knit dyeing


In this project work, the reputed “5” dyeing industry is taken for comparison their water consumption amount in dyeing according to different types of shed-like White, Black, Light, Medium and Dark. For the work, the data analysis method is used to develop a benchmark for water consumption to save water. The aim of this study to determine what amount of water waste in the different shed during dyeing, why water are wasting and try to save water, by comparison, some reputed industry. For our free water source, we use water irresponsibly and water waste in many ways but we can’t concern about our future. Our underground water level is decreasing day by day which is a big threat for our environment and our future of the dyeing industry. In this work, I find out a solution to water waste and develop a standard benchmark for water use in the different sheds.

Establishing the benchmark on the usage of process water in knit dyeing
Establishing the benchmark on the usage of process water in knit dyeing


Key Words: Technological development, SOP, Surface water, Processes, Benchmark, Water waste problem, etc.


Water is an essential element’s for our dyeing industry and also important for our environment and our lives. In the recent era, I can see that water waste rate increase day by day in our dyeing industry and also polluted our other source like river, pond, etc. So, we have to develop a standard water amount for a different shed in dyeing. We have to find out which kind of irresponsibility occurred this issue and solve that problem.

According to The Daily Star’s report, the Dhaka groundwater levels had now dropped to 52 meters below mean sea level. Over the past seven years, the water level of Gazipur district has dropped from 4 meters to 16 meters. In this scenario, we have to concern about our future of the dyeing industry and our next generation. In this situation, We have to develop a standard amount of water per shed. Find out why this problem occurred and how can we solve this problem? Hopefully, we recovered this problem mostly.


At first, find out the reason why water waste occurred in dyeing by noticing the dyeing process. Then find out the solution to those problems. Visited some industry to collect water consumption data and then a comparison between those collecting data and develop a benchmark.

How water waste in dyeing?

  • Without maintaining the right and optimum SOP
  • For doing unnecessary wash
  • For doing reprocess
  • Absent of proper skill about M/C maintain
  • Unnecessary pipeline in dyeing floor for washing hand
  • Machine technology also responsible because different technology consume different water amount
  • If m/c is affected by scale problem then water will waste
  • Many industries can’t record their water consumption rate, for this reason, they don’t know which amount of water waste day by day.

How can we solve those issues?

  • We have to maintain the right and optimum SOP and follow the global standard SOP for dyeing.
  • Eliminate unnecessary wash
  • We have to focus on every step of the dyeing process, hopefully, reprocess problem will solve.
  • To give proper training to the workers about m/c maintaining and inform about water waste problem
  • To cut the unnecessary pipeline from dyeing floor. For washing hands, they use ETP treatment water.
  • Try to install German technology machine-like SLAVOSE because it takes lower water to consume than other technology’s machine.
  • To check every m/c from time to time to solve the scale problem
  • Should make rules for every industry to record water consumption.
  • To follow actual water metering system
  • The machine must have a water consumption flow meter

Improvement Options:

  1. Process Development: Every industry follows different processes than the other. We have to focus on our process development. Which types of the process take lowest water consumption those processes should be followed such as Bio-Scouring Method, In this method, only one bath is used before the actual dyeing starts whereas in the conventional process a minimum of 5 baths are used. This leads to a 4 bath saving. Solvent dyeing method, Airflow dyeing method, Enzyme dyeing, compressed and pressurized CO2 dyeing method also reduce water consumption. So, we have to improve our process to reduce water consumption.
  2. Technological Development: This improvement must need for every industry because water consumption m/c to m/c varied. After survey different types of industry data about technology, I found that GERMAN technology m/c is the best like SLAVOSE M/C. In this m/c, dyeing is possible liquor ratio at 1:4 and 1:5. Another CHINESE technology M/C FONG’S consume low water and excellent production rate. But some machine-like DIL MENLER take water amount high than SLAVOSE. Another m/c TONG JEN will not run without input 6000ltr water before dyeing. In this scenario, we have to need technological improvement to save water and high production. In A REPUTED INDUSTRY their all kind of m/c based on German technology and their production efficiency 95%. So, in my opinion, this improvement will help to reduce water consumption.
  3. Skill Development: This point is important for any industry. The unskilled worker is also responsible for water consumption. They can’t maintain the machine properly for the shortage of knowledge about machine maintenance and they don’t know how water waste. It’s the responsibility of any industry to trained their worker and gives knowledge about water waste. The worker should save 10% water if they are careful about the water waste issue. So, every industry should train its workers.

 Data Analysis and Result

After visiting 5 industry, I collected water consumption rate for different shed and avg. all kind of fabric are given below:













F1 28-32 33-35 39-42 68-72 69-72
F2 28-32 40-43 40-46 55-57 55-57
F3 28-32 68-72 50-55 70-72 70-72
F4 28-30 70-75 42-45 55-60 55-60
F5 30-35 70-80 40-45 70-80 50-60

After analyzing upper table data, I develop a standard value of water used in a different shed which is possible for every industry to do dyeing this amount of water. The benchmark of water use in dyeing based on the different shed are given below:

White Colour (litter/kg) 28-32
Black Colour (litter/Kg) 35-40
Light Colour (litter/kg) 40-45
Dark Colour (litter/Kg) 55-60
Medium Colour(litter/Kg) 55-60

The benchmark of water use based on fabric construction are given below:

Fabric Types White (lt/kg) Black(lt/kg) Light(lt/kg) Dark(lt/kg)
S/J 29 40 45 55
Flecee 30 39 45 56
Terry 30 40 44 57.25
S/J PVC 30 40 45 55


In our country, we have a huge amount of water source naturally. We take it free from nature for this reason we use water in much unnecessary work. The surface water level decreases day by day. It will big threat for us. If this scenario running continuously, We will cost a huge amount of water. So, we have to concern about this problem. The production rate is 15 tons/day and If we save  10 litter water per kg we will save 150-meter cube water per day.

If the mineral water price of one litter is 15 Tk, We will save 2250000 tk per day. So we have to care about this issue. In my project, hopefully, fulfill my hypothesis mostly. Water is an essential element for lives and our dyeing industry. In this position, my project help to reduce the water waste problem. During data collection, I was noticed some industries do dyeing excellently. They are very conscious about the water waste problem. They work on this for many years since. Their experts are also trying to solve this vital issue. In any industry, I visit and noticed an issue like some industries don’t record their water consumption value. For this reason, they use water without any limit. The Govt. should develop rules for an industry that all dyeing industry must record their water consumption amount. Few factories can’t follow the actual water metering system, we have to concern about this issue. All machines must have a water flow meter. Factory to factory develops water benchmark based on fabric, color, etc. Hopefully, this water waste problem will mostly solve.

If anyone has any feedback or input regarding the published news, please contact: info@textiletoday.com.bd

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