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A feasibility study on the application of fully fashion knitwear technology on saree


Saree has a glorious past and it still dominates in the women’s attire world in Bangladesh. Although at present, there are numerous types, designs and fashion in sarees existing, yet market demands innovative ideas in the fashion of saree.

Generally, Saree is a woven fabric that is produced on a loom and it has properties of low shrinkage, low GSM and low spirality. The purpose of this research is to produce a full fashion knitwear saree and test its various physical component like shrinkage, spirality, colorfastness and GSM to determine its acceptability in the market. After thorough research, a full fashion knitwear saree was produced by the project and a laboratory test was carried out.

Figure: A sketch of a fully fashion knit saree.

The result of physical properties (shrinkage, spirality, colorfastness and GSM) came satisfactory and within acceptable limit. The user review was very high (7.8 out of 10).

The experts in the textile field generally commented that this is a novel approach and has bright prospects in the market. But one sample isn’t sufficient to determine its acceptability in the market. As it was a novel project, so, it recommends producing a few more fully fashion knitwear saree to determine its quality and demand in the market.

Keywords: Fully Fashion Knitted fabric, Spirality, Shrinkage, GSM, Color Fastness, etc.

1. Introduction

When one thinks of Bengal, one of the first things to pop up in our mind, right after the fish and sweets, is its thriving saree industry. Sarees form an integral part of every Bengali woman’s wardrobe and it is the most popular textiles that boast of rich history and heritage. Saree is normally made by woven technology.

Woven technology on saree takes more resources for production. It takes a long time for women to wear a saree. There is no design or fashion which makes saree users friendly. In the competitive market, there is a dire need for the production of a saree with fewer resources and time while maintaining quality and innovation in the product.

The purpose of the project is to give a spick and span touch to the conventional saree. We are going to make the conventional saree into fully fashionable knitwear. The project stands on three legs: design, knitting technique and yarn. The purpose of the paper is to describe how the combination of these things made an innovation.

Designing the garments and the system was the most time-consuming part of the project since the products had to be fashionable, manufacturable and preferably not too expensive. The look was however considered essential since fashion always comes first in the textile.

2. Experimental procedure

2.1. Materials and method

  1. a) Creating the original drawing: Original drawings are consisting of color numbers and option lines. First, we draw the pattern part. On the pattern, part knitting structures were used by using the color number. Next, we draw rib knitting and fixed rib knitting data from two lines below the bottom of the pattern. After that, we draw a cast of patten data. Finally draw auto yarn feeder point on both edges of the pattern. Now the pattern part is completed. After that carrier information, stitch value, stitch presser and take down information were given in the option line.
  2. b) Auto Process: The operation to convert the original drawing created with the SDS-ONE APEX-4 to knit data to be used on the knitting machine is called auto process.
  3. c) Automatic Software Settings: As for the auto process procedure first, we confirm automatic software settings and then clicked executed auto. After that, the structure pattern area was specified by clicking the original drawing according to the area menu. Next, the auto process inquiry was done. In auto process inquiry detailed information was given according to the original drawing information specified with the option line and the auto process is completed.

After that, the knit data is loaded which was created with SDS-ONE APEX-4. Next, the adjustment data was entered on the operation screen on the knitting machine. After that, the appropriate stitch value on the stitch screen was given and the loop size, as well as stitch number, was decided. Then the takedown value according to the takedown number was entered on the takedown screen. And then the value was entered to make the tension of the main roller, etc. appropriately. It took 62 minutes to make the saree.

Machine specification and yarn specification are given below.

Table 1. Knitting machine and knit data specification

Brand name of the machine Shima Seiki Mach2 Sig Flat knitting machine
Origin of machine Japan
Model MACH2S
Texture Single Jersey
Knitting Time 62 MIN
Knitting Speed(m/s) 1.00 M/S
No. of courses 1272
Knitting Width (Needle) 351(Half gauge 351*12 = 702) N
Knitting machine/Gauge 14

Table 2. Yarn specification

Material Cotton Yarn and Lace
Yarn Name Cotton
Yarn Maker Nice Cotton
Yarn count 32/2

3. Testing

3.1. Measurement of Shrinkage and Spirality

3.1.1. Materials

Template, Scissor, sewing machine, Horizontal Front-Loading Sample Washing m/c, Soaping Agent, Detergent, Softener.

3.1.2. Procedure

The length of the saree was 158 inches. It was washed using Detergent and Softener. Then after drying the fabric length was measured. Shrinkage percentage is calculated by the following formula.

Shrinkage % = b/a.

Where, a = Distance between two ends before treatment,

b = Distance after two ends before treatment.

3.1.3. Calculation of Shrinkage

Before washing the total length of the fabric was 158 inches.

After washing the total length is 148 inches.

Fabric Shrinkage % = (Length before washing- Length after washing)/100

= (158-148)/100

= 10%

3.1.4. Result of Shrinkage

Total shrinkage 10%

Spirality or twisting in a garment is appeared after washing. As a result, one of the side seams comes in front of the garment when the wearer wears it. Spirality percentage depends on fabric toque and garment structure.

For spirality check, First, the fabric was cut in a rectangle shape of 20” *10” dimension. 20 inches in the weft direction and 10 inches in warp or wale direction. After that, the fabric was folded and two ends were joined by an overedge stitch. It looked like a cylinder.

Figure 2: Final outlook of fully fashion knit saree.

A square (8” *8”) was marked with a fabric marker on one side of the folded and stitched fabric. Then the specimen was washed using 0.5% wetting agent for 40 min at 35 degrees Celsius in horizontal front-Loading sample washing m/c.

Then the Spirality of fabric is measured using the formula – Spirality % = 100*B/A

Where, B= Displacement of the side seam at bottom after wash

A = Side seam length

3.1.5. Calculation of Spirality

Left Side Increased Length = 0.25”

Right Side increased length = 0.35”

Spirality = [{(Left Side increase + Right Side Increase)/2}/Sample Previous length] * 100%

= [{(0.25+0.35)/2}/10] *100%

= 3%

3.1.6. Result of Spirality:

Spirality of the fabric is 3%

3.2. Measurement of Colorfastness

3.2.1. Materials

Crock Meter, Grey Scale

3.2.2. Procedure

We rub the fabric 10 times. Per sec 1 rubbing was done. After that it was compared with the greyscale.

3.2.3 Result

The Colorfastness of rubbing for the sample is 4

3.3. Measurement of GSM

GSM depends on the fabric stitch length, course per unit length, wales per unit length and yarn count. GSM indicates the properties of the fabric such as fabric weight; in a defined area (one square meter). Fabric GSM calculations depend on the yarn count system (Hasan, K.F., 2015).

3.3.1. Calculation

IN TEX SYSTEM: GSM=WPI X CPI X Stitch length (mm) X 39.37 X 39.37 X TEX / (1000 X 1000)

Where WPI = Wales per Inch

CPI = Course Per Inch (Hasan, K.F., 2015).


WPI = 14

CPI = 15

SL = 8mm

Yarn Count =32/2

GSM = (14*15*8*39.37*39.37*64)/1000000

= 166.67


3.3.2. Result

The calculated GSM is 167

3.4. Discussion on the testing outcome

The product has undergone a Spirality test, Shrinkage test, Colorfastness test and GSM test to determine the quality of the product. The result of the Spirality test is 3%. As more than 1% spirality isn’t acceptable. So, the product has low spirality.

The result of the shrinkage test is 10%. As Shrinkage percentage is acceptable up to 10%. So, the shrinkage result is acceptable. As it is a light color fabric, the colorfastness result came 4. Which is excellent. The GSM result is 167.

The waste level of this product is zero. As because the product is fully fashioned as well as highly time-efficient. It took only 62 minutes to produce the product.

4. Survey result

4.1. Qualitative

For the qualitative survey 19 experts were selected for the interview. They were asked about the project, acceptability of the product, technical parameters of the products which were found during the laboratory test and market demand of the product. Most of the interviewees have given high appreciation regarding the project as this is a novel project.

Almost all the experts opined that they see a good prospect in the project. In terms of technical parameters, the product is within the acceptable limit. The design of the product is also appreciated by everyone. However, before coming to a conclusion few more fully fashion knit saree to be produced and tested again.

4.2. Quantitative

To judge the quality and market demand of the product a survey was carried out. A total of 70 respondents were found from various locations and different ages. The respondent was selected randomly. The following table shows the marks given by the respondent.

Figure 3: Qualitative survey.

The following figure shows that 29% of respondents graded the product as 8.5 out of 10 while 14 % responded regarded it as 8 out of 10 and 35% responded to think 7.5 and only 22 % think the marks of the products should be 7 out of 10. The average percentage is 7.8 which represents the product is of high quality and has bright prospects in the market.

If anyone has any feedback or input regarding the published news, please contact: info@textiletoday.com.bd

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