What is a Standpipe System?
A standpipe system is a fire safety system that is designed to provide rapid access to water in the event that a fire breaks out. Standpipes are installed as stand-alone systems which act like building specific fire hydrants, providing fire protection which will be readily available to firefighters.
Hose connections and hose stations shall be unobstructed and shall be located not less than 3 ft (0.9 m) or more than 5 ft (1.5 m) above the floor (this measure valve center to the floor) NFPA-14:220.127.116.11.1
Class I systems shall be provided with 2 ½ in. (65 mm) hose connections in the following locations:
- At the main floor landing in exit stairways
- On each side of the wall adjacent to the exit openings of horizontal exits
- In other than covered mall buildings, in each exit passageway at the entrance from the building areas into the
- In covered mall buildings, at the entrance to each exit passageway or exit corridor, and at the interior side of public entrances from the exterior to the mall.
- At the highest landing of stairways with stairway access to a roof, or on roofs with a slope of less than 4 in 12 where stairways do not access the roof (NFPA-14:7.3.2)
Where the most remote portion of a non-sprinklered floor or story is located in excess of 150 ft of travel distance from a hose connection in or adjacent to a required exit or the most remote portion of a sprinklered floor or story is located in excess of 200 ft (61 m) of travel distance from a hose connection in or adjacent to a required exit, additional hose connections shall be provided, in approved locations, where required by the local fire department or the AHJ. (NFPA-14: 18.104.22.168)
This travel distance shall be 200 ft (61 m) for sprinklered buildings and 130 ft (39.7 m) for non-sprinklered buildings. (NFPA-14:22.214.171.124.1)
Class III Systems: Class III systems shall be provided with hose connections as required for both Class I and Class II (Ø40 & Ø65 mm valve) systems. (NFPA-14:7.3.4)
Sprinklered buildings only need a Class I standpipe system (NFPA-14: 126.96.36.199)
Number of Standpipes: Separate standpipes shall be provided in each required exit stairway. (NFPA-14: 7.4)
Reservoir Size: Full pump capacity within Hazard Class. LH-30min, OH-60min, EH-90 min.
Drains: All standpipe systems shall be equipped with drain connections in accordance with this section. (NFPA-14: 7.11.2)
A single connection for each zone shall be permitted where acceptable to the fire department. (NFPA-14:188.8.131.52)
Classes of Systems
Class I System:
- 2 ½” (65 mm) hose connection
2. Used by personnel trained for heavy stream operation
3. Designed to deliver 500 GPM at 1st riser and 250 GPM at each additional riser
4. Locations: In every required stairway, intermediate floor landing, unless approved
by local AHJ, each side of a horizontal exit, at the entrance to grade level
passageways, at the roof or highest landing based on slope.
Class II System:
- 1 ½” (40mm) hose station
2. Used by building occupants/FD
3. 100 GPM at 65 psi
4. Installed in the corridor & accessible to the occupants,
Class III System:
1. 2 ½” (65 mm) hose connection and a 1 ½” (40 mm) hose station.
- Not more than 100 ft of 1 ½” (40 mm) hose
3. Highest/lowest floor level >30’ of FD vehicle access
• Horizontal Exit
1. The horizontal exit must have a minimum 2-hr fire-resistance rating, and the openings in it must be rated at least 1.5 hours.
2. Providing standpipe hose outlets on both sides of the horizontal exit gives firefighters a refuge while fighting a fire on the opposite side of the fire barrier.
- Fire Department Connections
1. It allows FD to pump supplemental water for automatic systems
2. Water for manual systems
3. Shall be visible and recognizable
4. Located and arranged so that hose lines can be attached without interference,
5. Minimum size of fittings 2 ½” (65 mm)
6. Have a sign with at least 1” letter that read “STANDPIPE”
7. No shut-off valves between the FD connection and the system are allowed.
- Function of Pumps
|Type of Pump||Cut In||Cut Off||Mode||Delay|
|Jockey Pump||125 psi||140 psi||Auto On/Off||1 sec to start|
|Motor-Driven Pump||115 psi||130 psi||Auto On/Off||60 sec to stop|
|Diesel Driven Pump||105 psi||Auto On/Manual stop|
- Sprinkler Design
1. Water Supply 2. Occupancy 3. Building Construction
- Water Supply
The water that is available to the building/job site. The design of the sprinkler system is based on this available water. The three elements of the water supply are Static Pressure, Residual Pressure and Water Flow.
Static Pressure: The pressure available with no water flow
Residual Pressure: The pressure available with a water flow
Water Flow: The number of gallons per minute of the water flow
These above three make up the Water Supply Curve.
- Occupancy: Occupancy Determines Hazard ClassificationLight Hazard: (Schools, Office Buildings, Restaurant Seating Areas, Hospitals)
Group I (Parking deck, restaurant service area, beverage manufacturing)
Group 2 (Repair garages, mercantile, barns, chemical plants, piers, wood shop)
Group 1 (Aircraft hangers, printing, sawmills,)
Group 2 (Flammable liquid spraying, Manufactured home assemblies, plastic processing)
Details are given:
Ordinary Hazard (Group I)
Automobile parking and showroom, Bakeries, Beverage manufacturing, Canneries, Electronics plant
Dairy products manufacturing and processing, Laundries, Glass and glass products manufacturing,
Ordinary Hazard (Group II)
Agricultural facilities, Barns and Stables, Cereal mills, Chemical plant, Distilleries, Dry cleaners, Confectionery products, Exterior loading dock, Feed mills, Horse stables, Leather goods manufacturing, Libraries – large stack room area, Machine shop, Metalworking, Mercantile, Paper and pulp mills, Paper process plants, Pier and wharves, Post offices, Plastic fabrication, Printing and publishing, Stages, Racetrack stable/kennel areas, including those stable, Repair garages, Resin application area, Textile manufacturing, Tire, Tobacco products manufacturing, wood marching Wood product manufacturing.
Extra Hazard (Group I)
Aircraft hangar (NFPA 409), Die casting, Combustible hydraulic fluid area, Metal extruding, plywood particleboard mfc
Printing (ink flash point below 380C), Rubber reclaiming, compounding, drying, milling, vulcanizing, saw mills, Textile picking, opening, blending, garnering or carding, combining of cotton, synthetics, wool shoddy, or burlap upholstering with plastic foams
Extra Hazard (Group II)
Asphalt saturating, flaming liquids spraying, Flow coating, Manufactured home or modular building assemblies (where
finished goods are presented as combustible interiors, Open oil quenching, plastic manufacturing, solvent cleaning, washing plant, Varnish, and paint dipping, and Cutting Section.