This article is being published in two subsequent issues. This is the last part that contains Developments on Drawframe, Speedframe, Ring & others.
As far as draw frame is concerned, not much significant developments have been carried out, except one or two that will be discussed in the following section. All the machine manufacturers are supplying the draw frame with almost same kind of specifications (Table 1).
|Table .1 Specifications of different makes of Draw frame|
|Particular||Lakshmi Machine Works Ltd.||Rieter Machine works Ltd.||Vouk spa||TOYOTATextile Machinery||Trützschler GmbH & Co.|
|Model||LR SB 851||RSB||Unimax||DX8||TD 03|
|Delivery speed (max)||800 m/min||1100 m/min||1050 m/min||1000 m/min||1000 m/min|
|Drafting system||3-over-3 With pressure bar||4-over-3 With pressure bar||3-over-4 With pressure bar||3-over-3 With pressure bar||4-over-3 With pressure bar|
|Draft range||3.05 to 11.6||4.5 to 11.6||4 to 11.6||4 to 14||4 to 11|
|Roller loading||Pneumatic||Pneumatic||Spring or hydraulic||Spring||Pneumatic|
|No of deliveries||Single or twin (LD0/6)||Single or twin (SB)||Single or twin (Duomax)||Single or twin||Sigle|
|Can system (delivery)||Auto doffing
(round or rectangulatr cans)
(round or rectangulatr cans)
Auto break-draft setting: Incorrect break draft increases yarn U%, imperfections and neps whereas the total draft does not affect yarn quality much. AUTO DRAFT of Trützschler TD 03 draw frame optimizes break draft of draw frame under the prevailing conditions.
Clean coil: Rieter has patented a coiler plate that has honeycomb like surface and claimed to reduce cleaning frequency from 2 to 3 hours to 1-7 days depending upon the type and quantity of finishing agents.
Recent Developments in comber:
Change in the kinematics to increase nips/min: Most of the latest models of combers are able to run at higher speed. The reason behind this higher speed, apart from others things, is better manipulation of the comber technology, kinematics and air control.
Rieter has developed computer programmes C A P D 500 (Computer Aided Process Development- Figure: 01) for the optimization of combing process. The effective production performance of the E 80 comber in combination with the fully automated ROBOlap lap piecing system is 2 tonnes/day.
The special software in Trützschler Comber TCO 1 simulates the dynamic loads during the running process and Magnesium-aluminium alloys are used to make nippers lighter that reduce vibrations and noise level substantially.
Marzoli claims that comber CM600N can run at 480 nips/min. This becomes possible due to new kinematics of the nipper unit.
Toyota also claims that light weight aluminum differential arm along with improved ‘Cam-less Mechanism Link Motion’ for detaching roller derive reduces amount of inertia in detaching motion and enhances operational speed in Toyota VC5A Comber.
Concentric synchronize movement of the nippers: The combing will be better if the bottom nipper lower surface remains at fixed set distance from the bottom comb during the entire circular combing. This is achieved by using the standing pendulum principle (Figure 3). The Rieter E 66/E 76 combers, Trützschler Comber TCO 1, Marzoli Comber CM600N are equipped with concentric synchronize nippers movement.
Toyota Comber with 6” combing cylinder diameter as compared to 5”: In contrast to concentric nippers movements, Toyota VC5A Comber keeps cylinder gauge wide, at the start of the combing (Figure: 04) and afterward it is kept constant (min).
Self-cleaning top comb: Trützschler comber is equipped with self-cleaning top combs. An extremely short compressed air blast of a few milliseconds purges the needles from top to bottom and detaches the adhering fibres. The cleaning frequency can be adapted to the respective degree of soiling. Similarly Rieter also provides ‘Ri-Q-Top’ top-comb with high self cleaning effect.
Easy setting of nipper gauge: Toyota VC5A Comber offers one-point adjustment for nipper gauge. Thus it can be easily adjusted by moving top comb back and forth to align with setting gauge. Hence it is not required to adjust nipper pivot gauge and check cylinder gauge.
Recent Developments in speed-frame
The speed frame is the machine that has gone least change. This can be realized from the fact that a spindle speed of 1,500 rpm as on date as compared to 600 rpm in 1950s. Still there are certain changes that have been carried out for better production and quality like, increase in the roving bobbin diameter from 4″ to 7″ and lift from 8″ to 16″, use of straight cone drum instead of hyperbolic cone drum for better control over the roving tension etc. Now all closed (AC Type) flyers are used to overcome the problem of air drag on roving.
The roving frames are equipped with auto doffing system that, apart from avoiding man handling, reduces doffing time. Apart from above, some of the developments those are really significant will be discussed in subsequent sections.
Equal roving geometry for front and back row roving: Modern speed frames have raised flyer top of the back row as compared to the front row to maintain the roving delivery angle (Figure: 06).
Individual motor drive: All machine manufacturers incorporate four-motor-drive system except Toyota.
Roving tension sensors: Roving tension sensors measure and control the roving tension (constant) throughout the bobbin build.
Recent Developments in ring frame:
The ring frame has under significant changes. One of the most innovative developments that have been incorporated on this machine is compact spinning. Compact spinning is such a system where the yarn can be produced with higher speed, and better quality and which gives benefit in the downstream. Consequently, fabric made from the compact yarn gives better look. In conventional ring spinning system, the width or spread of the fibres emerging out from the front roller is greater than width or diameter of the yarn. Since the twist is not fully penetrated into the front roller nip, there is always a ‘Delta Zone’ called “Spinning Triangle” (Figure: 07). If the twists are imparted, the fibres at the edges are either loosely bound or lost as a fly and produce hairy yarn. The main purpose of the Compact Spinning is to eliminate spinning triangle at front roller, technically speaking the ‘weakest point’ of the ring spinning. The elimination of the spinning triangle results in permanent change of yarn structure, which distinguishes the compact spinning from conventional ring spinning. The other significant modern developments will be discussed in subsequent section.
Tackling spindle under windings : Rieter SERVOgrip is a system of doffing ring cop without the under winding threads. The main element of the SERVOgrip is a patented clamping crown (Figure:08).
Changes in spinning geometry: Zinser has claimed that the yarn path has been made short, thus causes less disturbance to twist transmission as compared with a long thread run. The reduction in stretch length and higher spinning angle on Toyota RX240 NEW ring frame results into high-speed due to better twist propagation and stable ballooning with reduced yarn breakage. Depending upon the tube length, the spinning angle on Marzoli MPN ring frame is optimized for better running condition. The distance between the BC ring, delivery angle, lappet and ring rail has been also optimized.
Monitoring systems: Rieter Individual Spindle Monitoring (ISM) is a quality monitoring system. This system reports faults and anomalies by means of a 3-level light guidance system thus enable personnel to locate the problem spindles without unnecessary searches.
Roving Guard : Zinser GUARD system is the individual yarn monitor FilaGuard monitors the rotation of the steel ring travellers on each spindle and detects any yarn break immediately (Figure:09).
Change in Drafting system and Technology: Multi-motor drive Rieter FLEXIdraft flexible drive, equipped on Rieter G 33 ring spinning machine, features separate drives for the drafting system and the spindles Zinser SychroDrive is a multi-motor tangential belt drive system. The consistency in spindles speed relative to each other minimizes the twist variation apart from reduction in noise level and minimum power requirement.
Marzoli MPN ring frame also equipped with multi-motors drive system. The main motor drives the spindles whereas the ring rail along with thread guide and BC rings are driven from another brushless motor.
Servo motor-driven positive lifting mechanism: Toyota’s proprietary screw shaft positive lifting mechanism is used to on RX240 NEW ring for ring rail lifting motion. This eliminates disparity in the ring rail motion during long periods of continuous operation.
Fancy yarn and core spun yarn spinning: Rieter VARIOspin is a fancy yarn production system incorporated on ring frame (Rieter G33) and compact ring frame (Rieter K44). Windows-based VARIOspinData PC software is used to transfer fancy yarn data to the machine control system via, the RS 232 interface.
Zinser offers to spin two ply twisted yarn (SiroSpun option) at the ring spinning machine. In SiroSpun process, two rovings are fed in parallel through the drafting system and are only combined after the front rollers nip point. Similarly hard and soft core-spun yarn (hard: Non-elastic, but high-tensile component in core and soft: Elastic component in core) can also be spun with CoreSpun system on Zinser ring spinning machines.
Multi-motors drive system of Marzoli ring frame enables to spin fancy yarn like, slub, multi-twist or multicount, etc. The yarn contains controlled irregularities in term of thickness and twist variation can be actuated by moving bottom rollers at different speed via, a microcontroller.
More spindles in less space: Rieter G 35 has 1 632 spindles each 9 800 m2 where the previous version had 1200 spindles in each 11 300 m2, this results in a reduction of 13 % in total floor area required. In addition to the cost of the building, running costs for maintenance, cleaning, lighting and air conditioning are lower in G35.
Titan Spinning Ring by Bräcker: The titan coating is specially characterized by high resistant wear over a special type of alloy to give a longer life time of ring 5 to 10 years, with high speed production for short staple pinning. It is also reducing ring cost by its long service life.
The cot protecting system (CPS) by Suessen: It is also known as maintenance free drafting system. The CPS achieve this goal owing to a special non-elastic apron. Test in spinning mills have shown that with the CPS system cot can be used without grinding for more than 18 months. The benefits of CPS are High flexibility, almost no climatic influence on lapping and consistent yarn quality over a long time (Figure: 10).
Camel type card clothing: The design of the camel shape has a distinctly positive effect on the airflow on the clothing surface. As a result, the fibers are kept on the surface of the cylinder wire much better thus preventing the fibers from sliding into the clothing. This card clothing is manufactured by GRAF, Switzerland.
OptiStep and OptiStart: OptiStep is a system of adjusting spindle speed in 10 different ranges throughout the cop build on Zinser ring spinning machines Similarly OptiStart (optional) is a running-in programme for ring travellers to perform the running-in phases of the ring travellers with precise accuracy up to production speed. Hence the traveller service life is substantially extended.
OptiMove: Zinser uses separate electric roving guide drive OptiMove to traverse the roving guide. This is claimed that top rollers wear is reduced and service life is increased significantly.
Twin traverse method: A double traverse motion for the roving guide used by Marzoli covers the wider area over the cots and consequently increases the cots and apron life.
The task of the ring frame and other machines is not just to produce quality product, but must have the flexibility to handle the ever-increasing needs of the consumer market. Keeping this in mind, the machine manufacturers are, to a large extent, able to fulfill the demands of the customer. The non-conventional yarn manufacturing machines become more flexible and thus now it is possible to spin various fancy/effect and core spun yarns. So it can be say that conventional ring spinning system is going to face tough competition in near future.
- Developments in blowroom, card & draw frame, Reeti Pal Singh & V K Kothari, The Indian Textile Journal April 2009 Issue.
- Developments in Comber, Speed frame and Ring Spinning, by Reeti Pal Singh & Dr V K Kothari, The Indian Textile Journal May 2009 issue.
- Chitra Siva Sankar, Jaisar Spintex Pvt Ltd, 132n, Thiruvengadam Road, Sankarankovil, Tirunelveli Dist Tamil Nadu 627 756. Email: email@example.com.
- Advantages and disadvantages of Ring spinning systems, http://compactspinning.in/advantages-and-disadvantages-of-ring-spinning-systems.html
- Trüitzschler Compact Blowroom, http://machinery.fiber2fashion.com/product-promotion/tr%C3 %BCtzschler/tr%C3%BCtzschler-compact-blowroom.asp