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A review on the chronological development of loom

Abstract

The loom is a device that is used to weave textile fabric products and the basic purpose of any loom is to hold the warp threads under tension to facilitate the interlacing of the weft threads. The precise shape of the loom and its mechanics may vary, but the basic function is the same. Modern high-quality looms are not a result of a single moment, long decades need for development. Many man’s effort and societal factors are remaining behind this chronological development of loom. Thus, after a long period, the modern world found energy-efficient, high productive looms. This article clarifies mainly the chronological featured development of looms from ancient to current world’s modern weaving machines.

development of textile loom

  1. Introduction

Looms are mainly utilized for the method of fabrication, in which two distinct sets of yarns the warps and wefts are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth. The cloth is usually weaved on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them. A fabric band that meets this definition of cloth can also be made using other methods like knitting, tablet weaving, back-strap or other techniques without looms. The way the warp and filling threads (weft) interlace with each other is called the weave.

So, particularly the weaving process is mainly done on looms or weaving machines. The primary distinction between different types of looms is the manner of filling insertion. The principal elements of any type of loom are the shedding, picking, and beating-up devices. In shedding, a path is formed for the filling by raising some warp threads while others are left down. Picking consists essentially of projecting the filling yarn from one side of the loom to the other. Beating-up forces the pick that has just been left in the shed, up to the fell of the fabric. This is accomplished by the reed, which is brought forward with some force by the lay. In spite of having those basic mechanisms the modern looms or machines obligate more functional and quality parts also. This manuscript highlighted the historical development of loom by elaborating functional and physical belongings of the loom from ancient to modern mainly.

  1. 2. Chronological development of looms
development of textile loom
Figure 1: Sequence of development of loom.

Today’s modern loom has not yet come automatically, after passing a long period modern loom has been invented. The process of developing the loom is still running. Today’s modern looms are the results of chronological development which require several decades. The sequential development of loom is illustrated in chart -1.

textile loom

This featured article indicates the development of loom by representing the most important properties of each loom sequentially and including documentary photos given in several figures from figure 1 to 9.

2.1 Primitive/Vertical loom:

Primitive loom
Figure 2: Primitive/Vertical loom.
  • No heald shaft, warp beam, the reed is present.
  • All primary motions are manual.
  • Picking is done by hand.
  • Only the vertical frame is used to stretch the warp yarn.

2.2 Pit loom:

Pit loom
Figure 3: Pit loom.
  • Heald shaft, warp beam, reed introduced here.
  • Loom placed inside a pit.
  • Heald shaft is controlled by pressing a treadle lever by feet inside the pit.
  • All primary motions are manual.

2.3 Frame loom:

Frame loom
Figure 4: Frame loom.
  • The loom is made by a wooden frame.
  • Heald shaft, warp beam, the reed is present.
  • All primary motions are present.

2.4 Chitta Ranjan loom/Semi-automatic loom:

Semi-automatic loom
Figure 5: Semi-automatic loom.
  • The loom is made by a heavy wooden frame.
  • All the primary motions are manual.
  • Only take-up motion is automatic. Five wheels take-up mechanism is introduced to regulate picks per inch.
  • Let-off is also manual (using chain, lever and weight system).

2.5 Hattersley loom:

Hattersley loom
Figure 6: Hattersley loom.
  • The loom is made by an iron frame
  • Shedding, picking, take-up is automatic
  • Beat up and let off is manual

2.6 Ordinary power loom:

Ordinary power loom
Figure 7: Ordinary power loom.
  • The loom is run by the power system.
  • Except for let-off, all primary and secondary motions are automatic.
  • In case of warp or weft yarn breakage, loom stopped by manually.
  • The shuttle change mechanism is done manually.

2.7 Automatic power/ Shuttle loom:

Automatic power loom
Figure 8: Automatic power loom.
  • All primary and secondary motions are automatic.
  • Tertiary motions are present here.
  • The shuttle change mechanism is automatic.

2.8 Modern loom/Shuttleless loom:

Modern loom
Figure 9: Shuttle less modern looms.
  • All primary, secondary and tertiary emotions are automatic.
  • The shuttle is not used here.
  • Weft insertion is done by various mechanisms such as projectile air, water, etc.
  • Productivity high.
  • Product quality better.
  1. Shuttle loom vs. shuttle less modern loom

3.1 Operating experience with shuttle loom:

Advantages

  • Suitable for complicated requirements of checks and stripes fabrics
  • Fabric selvage quality is good
  • High quality of the yarn is not mandatory

Disadvantages

  • A heavy mass of shuttle is propelled to insert a small amount of weft
  • Limited scope for speed change
  • More manpower required
  • Loss of energy is very high
  • Lead to loss of production
  • Heavy wear and tear
  • Require very good quality of preparation
  • Poor fabric quality
  • Less production
  • Very noisy

3.2 Operating experience with shuttle less modern loom:

Advantages                                                   

  • Upgraded picking mechanism and device
  • Low noise and energy consumptions
  • Higher production
  • Low wear and tear
  • Good fabric quality
  • Less manpower required

Disadvantages

  • Complicated requirements of checks and stripes fabrics are not found in the shuttleless loom.
  • Selvage quality of fabric for some shuttle less is not good.
  • It requires very high-quality yarn.

3.2.1 Projectile/Gripper loom:

Advantages of the smaller shed

  • As the stroke of the reed is small so that yarn with hairiness can be woven without too much difficulty.
  • The upper and lower shed lines remain near the center of the reed, as a result, knots can easily pass through the reed so that there will be less end breakage and the weaving efficiency will higher.

Other advantages

  • Lowest consumption of energy.
  • Weaving cost is much lower than the shuttle loom.

Disadvantages of the smaller shed

  • The preparation of the beam should be very precise so that there would not be any loose yarn in the shed zone, loose yarn may break or result in faulty design in the fabric.
  • Unsuitable for high-density fabrics because in this case, the warp yarns may break due to the insertion of the projectile guide.
  • Fine filaments and twist less textured yarns result in problems in transferring the tip of the weft.

3.2.2 Rapier loom:

Advantages of the smaller shed

  • Safe passage of knots
  • Less end breakage and better weaving efficiency

Other advantages

  • It can weave a wide variety of fabrics like light, medium and heavy fabric.
  • Gentle handling of the loom leading to minimum weft breakage.
  • Most flexible loom as 3.3-2250 Tex can be successfully woven.
  • Most convenient for inserting a greater number of colored picks.
  • Produce fabric with the lowest number of faults.

Disadvantages

  • Weaving cost is higher than the projectile and air-jet loom.
  • It requires more space in the width direction than any other loom.

3.2.3 Air jet loom:

Advantages of the smaller shed

  • Safe passage of knots
  • Less end breakage and better weaving efficiency

Other advantages

  • Excellent loom for filament weaving
  • Versatile as regards to yarn quality
  • Suitable for single color wefts in mass production
  • Lowest consumption of energy

Disadvantages

  • The preparation of the beam should be very precise so that there would not be any loose yarn in the shed zone, loose yarn may break or result in faulty design in the fabric.

3.2.4 Water jet loom:

Advantages of the smaller shed

  • Safe passage of knots
  • Less end breakage and better weaving efficiency

Other advantages

  • Best for 100% filament fabric on a mass scale
  • Lowest consumption of energy

Disadvantages

  • Least flexible as a fabric woven should be hydrophobic yarns
  • Waste of yarn is more than air jet loom
  1. Conclusion:

The weaving industries are one of the largest foreign currency earning sectors in this modern era and to increase the amount of foreign currency proper maintenance and better-quality looms are required. Again, as it is notable that, there are some problems in operating with modern looms too so it is high time to continue research for the further development of loom to ensure good quality products, get clean fabric surface, and minimize the rate of yarn breakages and so on. This featured documentary directly not indicate the development of new loom but surely be helpful for the learners to know about the historical development of loom at a glance in today’s textile sector.

References: This article has been developed using information collected from different websites.

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