The study engaged a mixed-method methodology to find out the effect of COVID-19 on the textile curriculum of Bangladesh. The quantitative part engrossed on if there was a substantial effect of COVID-19 on the textile curriculum of Bangladesh and if there was a substantial change among offline and online classes.
In the quantitative part, 225 students and in the qualitative part 14 teachers took part as the samples.
Quantitative data evaluated by SPSS and qualitative data were evaluated by persistent proper qualitative data analysis techniques. The quantitative results specified that there is a substantial effect of COVID-19 on the overall textile curriculum of Bangladesh.
The results also proposed that there is a substantial alteration between online practical demonstrations at the textile lab.
The interview or qualitative data analysis specified that COVID-19 has a huge effect on the textile curriculum of Bangladesh, especially since both educators and learners are not ready in terms of efficiency and flexibility of online classes.
Moreover, the majority of educators think that online practical activities cannot be an alternative to physical practical classes.
COVID-19 epidemic has created serious damage in all educational institutions and for both students and teachers. Including textile students, around 40 million students have been affected in Bangladesh. The government and UNESCO suggested online classrooms to overcome this unprecedented problem by using online or digital media.
Due to this pandemic, like all other curricula, the textile engineering curriculum has been severely affected, especially practical-based learning. However, right now all textile institutions in Bangladesh are mainly focusing on theoretical classes.
Due to some limitations, it is not possible to conduct practical classes by using a digital platform.
However, science student must do their practical class for a realistic learning process. Therefore, it is high time to find an effective alternative way of conducting lab classes by using a digital platform.
Some researchers agreed that online lab classes offer an enormous advantage in engineering practical-based learning and turns out to be an effective alternative to conventional lab classes.
On contrary, some of the researchers also indicated that it is not an effective way of conducting practical classes. Because of practical experience, clarification of concept, flexibility and repetition are missing in the digital platform.
In addition, several researchers pointed out that digital platform greatly upgraded by using 3D and it helps students control and perform a test on actual material via the internet.
One of them also recommended that conducting the test in virtual lab classes are more productive than conducting the same test in conventional lab classes. The researcher believed that the efficiency of the lab classes depends on the student’s interactivity.
Many researchers find it helpful to adopt new technology for the new generation. Therefore, educational institutions need to adopt this chance of asynchronous learning to improve remote learning abilities that work well virtually in this epidemic situation.
As textile education is deeply focused on lab-based learning, which has a tremendous impact on the current employment market, it is important to deliver students the most suitable and realistic method of using a digital platform in this narrow condition.
Due to the present unprecedented condition, in Bangladesh, very few studies have found on the consequence of this unprecedented condition on the textile curriculum. Delicate attention has made to the textile practical online classes in this study.
For this study, a mixed-method research approach through a survey of the students and a face-to-face interview of the teachers of different textile educational institutions of Bangladesh have used. For qualitative methods, semi-structured interviews were set for the educators and quantitative methods; a questionnaire set for learners.
For in-depth study, 12 closed-ended questions was preferred for learners. By using 5-point Likert scales ranging from strongly agree (5) to strongly disagree (1) the questions were dignified.
Five experience experts panel from different universities inside and outside of the country participate in this research and all of them give their valuable opinion and suggestions on the questionnaire.
For qualitative research, a semi-structured interview was chosen due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Five experienced experts’ panel from different universities inside and outside of the country give their suggestions and opinions for 5-open-ended questions.
In quantitative research, 225 undergraduate students from 14 private and public textile universities/colleges participated. Due to this COVID-19 pandemic, this survey conducted through the GOOGLE form (G-form). By using social media platforms like E-mail, WhatsApp, Messenger and Facebook) G-form links shared with the partakers. The avg. call duration was around 15 minutes.
14 educators from ten private and public textile institutes were interviewed. A permission agreement taken at the commencement of the interview.
The quantitative data evaluated through a two-tailed one-sample t-test at a 95% confidence interval using an IBM SPSS (version 26) software. The qualitative data recorded and analyzed using persistent proper qualitative data analysis techniques.
Results and discussion
The data evaluated through a one-sample t-test (two-tailed) using IBM SPSS (Version 26) software. The t-test indicates that the majority of the learners think there is a significant effect of COVID-19 on textile education. They presented their greater trouble to the conversion in terms of an online class, flexibility to it and affectivity of the virtual guidelines.
In the following table 1, the response of the survey given in 5-point Likert scales:
|Table 1. Responses to the survey|
|Q. No.||Statements||Strongly agree||Agree||Neutral||Disagree||Strongly disagree|
|1||Online class is boring||13.3%||31.1%||28.4%||23.6%||3.6%|
|2||Online is the only possible medium of instruction during COVID-19 pandemic||26.7%||55.1%||9.3%||8.0%||0.9%|
|3||Online classes have paved the ways for alternative option in case of unexpected class closure||16.9%||53.3%||23.6%||4.9%||1.3%|
|4||Interactive activities among students have increased significantly in online classes||4.9%||40.9%||20.4%||28.4%||5.3%|
|5||I get more time to study at home due to online classes. Therefore, an online class is time-saving||22.7%||43.6%||13.3%||13.8%||6.7%|
|6||Teachers respond positively if I request a quick online meeting||10.7%||35.1%||35.1%||13.8%||5.3%|
|7||Visual representation of practical work is a good choice in online class||7.1%||30.2%||16.4%||35.6%||10.7%|
|8||Improved 3D images of textiles and related materials are good alternatives for practical works||10.7%||44.4%||16.4%||21.3%||7.1%|
|9||I enjoy online visuals than doing things practically in the lab||2.7%||12.0%||7.1%||48.4%||29.8%|
|10||Online exam is not a good choice||30.7%||24.9%||17.3%||20.9%||6.2%|
|11||Textile lecture is inconvenient in online than in face to face class||16.9%||37.3%||17.8%||22.2%||5.8%|
|12||Internet disruption is a problem in online class||65.8%||27.6%||1.8%||0.9%||4.0%|
In the above response, it is cleared that virtual class is not a good choice for the textile curriculum. However, students are positive about interactive activities and video lectures. However, it is proved that there is a significant difference between offline and online lab classes and learners are not like the idea of online examination.
In this study, the qualitative research method used to increase the effectiveness of running virtual theoretical classes and to find alternative ways of piloting lab classes.
In question number-1, to the question about the duration of the online class: In reply, five of them suggested the range should be 1.5-2 hour and the rest of them suggested that the online class duration should be a maximum of 1 hour.
Therefore, the duration of the class should be appropriate for the learners, as it is a very new method for all educators and learners. Both educators and learners should feel calm with the usability of this method.
In question number-2, the question about how they increase the activity of the learners’ increases in the class? In reply, all of them suggested to arranging presentation, quiz, assignment, assessment and taking feedback from the learners and arranging extra curriculum activities also increase learners’ activity.
The ideas of increase the activity of the interviewees are very old-fashioned as there was nothing innovative that specifies that the textile curriculum in Bangladesh is not yet ready to squeeze the increase the activity in the online class more innovatively.
In question number-3, to the question about online lab activities: In reply, five of them completely disagree to do the lab class online and the rest of them suggested that it should be postponed but if the situation of the pandemic goes long then they are interested to do the lab class through online.
Those educators who support online practical activity (if this COVID-19 pandemic condition extends long) answered rests of the ensuing questions.
In question number-4, to the question as to how they conduct their online lab class online? In reply, they all are interested to show their learners lab-related videos from YouTube (most of the relevant videos are available) and if needed the educators to attend the lab physically and making video tutorials for the practical class.
Also showing an animation of different gearing diagrams and then learners should submit their assignment.
Lastly, to the question about the textile practical lab in an online class: Summarizing their responses interviewer found that as the textile lab is mostly mechanism-based so there is only one option left to show them an animated video of the mechanism.
All the interviewees measured 3D images and practical videos as the most appropriate method of making the online practical class more simulated. This specifies the prominence of ingenuity in the 3D images and videos for the learners in the online practical classes.
The COVID-19 epidemic has given an awful shock to all education of Bangladesh. This study indicates that learners and educators of various public and private textile institutions in Bangladesh are not interested in these fundamental changes.
Educators are more cynical on the affectivity of online practical classes as practical works cannot be substituted by virtual teachings.
Yet, they are optimistic about learning from a new model of the digital platform and suggested more research on how to make the online practical class more effective and interactive.
The authors would like to acknowledge the contribution of all the experts, advisors, supervisors and all the participants. Finally, a huge shout out to the Textile Today authority for their necessary supports throughout the whole project.