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Sustainable textiles – the need of future

Introduction

Climate change is one of the major concerns of 21st century. Tremendous efforts are being made to tackle the climate change issue of the globe. Being one of the major polluting industries of the world, textile and apparel industry has caught the central attention. From fiber production to consumer use phase, the industry releases huge amount of carbon throughout the supply chain.

Sustainable-textiles-need-of-future
Figure: Textile industry has undergone a drastic transformation as per the requirements of customers and ecology.

Increased awareness is needed to protect the environment and ecosystems. The interested parties in the environmental protection policies are no longer just environmental groups, consumers and producers but also retailers, exporters, importers, traders, technological societies and national, regional and international authorities.

Effect of polluted water on humans

Water-borne diseases account for the deaths of 3,575,000 people a year and the majority of these are children. Infectious diseases can be spread through contaminated water. Previously unknown allergies are being attributed to the use of chemical finishes on apparel.

With awareness and demand, ecological parameters for all consumer goods gain significant importance. An eco-label provides brief information on environment related product qualities. It enables consumers to identify those products that are environmentally

safe; that have been manufactured using eco-friendly materials and do not contain chemicals that are harmful to the user. Since “eco-friendliness” is an additional product quality, it can be used for marketing and advertising purposes.

Some of the eco-labels are described below:

  • GOTS
  • Bluesign standard
  • Greenpeace
  • Restricted Substance List
  • MRSL (Manufacturing Restricted Substance List)
  • ZDHC
  • OekoTex
  • REACH
  • Cradle to cradle
  • Greenscreen
  • Higg Index

Green pathways in textile processing

Textile industry has undergone a drastic transformation as per the requirements of customers and ecology. As the stringent norms are fixed on the characteristics of discharged effluent, there is always a demand for chemicals/auxiliaries which can reduce the pollution load of effluent.

Alkali free scouring process

Alkali free scouring process removes the pectins to a level just enough that it facilitates the even absorbency of the yarn.

Presence of pectin leads to strength retention, lesser hairiness and smoother surface profile. It offers cleaner processes, replaces chemicals, reduces TDS, saves time, water and energy throughout production chain.

Neutral bleaching process

Bleaching process in one of the most important pretreatment process of textile processing by which fabric’s reflectance, whiteness and absorbency is enhanced. Conventional bleaching process is carried out at higher pH say 11-12 pH. Neutral Bleaching i.e pH of 6-7, the cellulose material tends to swell significantly less than under alkaline conditions, which means better liquor penetration and more effective removal of mineral impurities and metals. It replaces caustic during process so additional neutralization step is avoided.

Clay based products

Clay minerals are very reactive because of their large surface area and because they commonly carry a charge. The charge that originates at clay surfaces is usually due to chemical reactions that occur at the surface of minerals, but it can also be caused by adsorption of surfactant ions. Due to large surface area of clay, it can adsorb all kind of impurities natural and synthetic. It can be very effective in removal of oil even silicone oil.

Denim processing

To give distressed denim lookmany types of washing are given to denim fabric. In stonewashing process stone could cause the problem of environmental disposition of waste of grit produced by stones. The process of stone washing also harms big, expensive laundry machines.

Cellulases are used to provide that distressed worn out look to denim fabric. Cellulase is environmentally friendly compared to pumice stones.

Laccase is the newest enzyme class to be introduced into denim finishing. It is useful enzyme for ecofriendly bleaching process of blue denim.

Acid stable enzyme and protonic treatment in CBR

Pin hole damage is a serious problem faced by textile manufacturers. Pin hole damage is mainly concerned with cellulosic materials in processing while carrying out bleaching with hydrogen peroxide at high temperature. In bleaching presence of heavy metal ions and certain other impurities reduce bleaching action. Commercial amylase works at pH 6-7. But it has limitations like stability in acidic

conditions, starch conversion rate, contamination risk etc. Acid stable amylase can be combined with protonic treatment which is a huge advantage for textile process house.

Acetic acid replacement vs soda ash replacement

Conventional acetic acid has many disadvantages. It can damage cellulosic substrates, capable of weakening cellulose easily, special precautions are needed while handling. Besides this it has adverse effect on labours, increases load on effluent and storage hazard over a period of time. Ecofriendly buffer can be used overcome these problems.

Normally soda ash is the most commonly used alkali in reactive dyeing. As much as 50% of the total cost of a reactive dyeing process is attributed to the washing-off stages to remove unfixed or hydrolyzed dyes and treatment of the resulting effluent. Under this circumstance dyeing without conventional Soda Ash can results in much lower TDS in effluent causing much less trouble in effluent treatment.

Rossari’s Greenovations in Textile processing

Product Name Advantages % Saving
Greenboost Scouring without alkali COD – 47%

BOD – 15%

TDS – 78%

Time – 45%

Greenboost Bleaching of textiles at a neutral pH range Water – 33%

Energy – 43%

Greensoda 1000 Powder Soda ash replacement TDS – 75%
Greenacid New Liquid Ecofriendly buffer COD – 67%

BOD – 98%

Greenhydro 400 Powder Substitute to conventional Hydro-caustic process Water – 66%
Green RC Liquid Substitute to conventional Hydro-caustic process Water – 33%
Zycol AWA Liquid Acidic washing off Water – 20%

Energy – 20%

Time – 33%

Fasttrack All in one product for pretreatment BOD – 79%

COD – 38%

TDS – 49%

Kleenox AIO Liquid COD/BOD – 20-30%
Instabrite Multipurpose ecofriendly additive Readily biodegradable

 

Kleenox DRDT Liquid High Scouring agent COD – 60%

BOD – 80%

TDS – 75%

Neobind BCF Conc. Liquid Ecofriendly Binder Low formaldehyde
Neobind BCF Plus Liquid Ecofriendly Binder No formaldehyde

Acidic washing off

Reactive dyes have better property in terms of fastness. Dyeing of cellulosic substrates takes place with reactive dyes under alkaline conditions. Washing-off agent in order retain the fastness properties. Using acidic washing off agent we can avoid neutralization step after dyeing along with improvement in fastness properties.

Sodium hydrosulphite free reduction clearing

Dyeing of polyester is exclusively carried out by the use of disperse dyes, but due to the highly hydrophobic nature of polyester fibre, after -treatments are required for optimal satisfactory fastness.

During dyeing, particularly of deep shades, there will invariably be some dye particles that adhere to the fibre surfaces, or are retained by yarns without penetration into the fibre. These mechanically held particles result in decreased fastness to washing, rubbing, sublimation and dry cleaning. The reduction clear process is designed to remove surplus dye and

dyeing auxiliaries (e.g. migration inhibitors, carrier residues and surfactants) without altering the shade of the dyeing.

Amido silicone

The use of silicones for softening fabrics has been well known for quite some time. Mostly amino modified silicones are used in textile industry as amino groups provide better affinity to textile fibres.

All in one product

In recent time, many end users demand different properties in single product during processing. Such products not only avoid usage of different chemicals but also helps to reduce confusion about dosages which need to be added. Also, no need to remember sequence of chemicals to be added.

Such kind of chemicals helps to save utilities like energy, time, water. Also helps to reduce load of effluent.

Ecofriendly printing package

Using more environmentally friendly preparation and auxiliary products for example to reduce or to eliminate formaldehyde on fabric is currently one of the major concerns in textile printing industry. Recent efforts have been made to reduce the formaldehyde content of or the free formaldehyde generated by binders or totally eliminate the formaldehyde component of binders for environment reasons.

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