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Textile dyeing effluents and its impact on environment

In the dyeing industry, a large amount of strongly colored effluents are discharged into the environment that are extensively polluted and high in salts. This chemical load is produced as a result of the various phases in the textile preparation process. Due to the inefficiency of the dyeing process, up to 200,000 tons of these colors are lost to effluents every year in the textile sector during dyeing and finishing activities.

The textile industry releases significant amounts of colors into water bodies, posing serious environmental issues. It is believed that 12-15 percent of these dyes are released in effluents during manufacturing processes, causing contamination in the environment. So this industry has a direct link to environmental issues that must be addressed publicly and thoroughly. And it is mainly responsible for an extensive list of environmental impacts.

Textile dyes degrade the aesthetic quality of water bodies by increasing biochemical and chemical oxygen demand (BOD and COD), impairing photosynthesis, inhibiting plant growth, entering the food chain, providing recalcitrance, bioaccumulation and potentially promoting toxicity.

Figure: Bangladesh is a role model in managing textile dyeing effluents and other apparel manufacturing countries can follow its model.

The majority of colors used in the textile industry are light-stable and non-biodegradable. They also have a high resistance to aerobic digestion. Dyes are usually synthetic and have complex aromatic molecular structures, making them more stable and difficult to break down.

Natural and synthetic dyes have been used to brighten garments for more than 4000 years, from Ancient Egypt to the present day. Although dyes have been known to mankind since ancient times, synthetic variants, as well as intermediate chemicals, did not begin to be created until the late nineteenth century, generating a high prevalence of bladder cancer, especially benzidine and 2-naphthylamine. Textile dyes cause a variety of ailments, ranging from dermatitis to central nervous system disorders, and may be linked to the substitution of enzyme cofactors, resulting in the inactivation of enzymatic functions.

Furthermore, rising demand for textile items and corresponding increases in manufacturing, as well as the usage of synthetic dyes, have combined to make dye wastewater one of the most significant sources of serious pollution concerns in recent times. Today there are more than 10,000 dyes available commercially and over 7×105 tons are produced annually worldwide.

Chemical oxidation, ozonation, ion exchange, electrochemical process, electrolytic precipitation, foam fractionation, membrane filtration, photocatalytic degradation, and adsorption are some of the techniques used to treat color effluents today. According to the findings of the study, no single strategy is sufficient to manage water pollution caused by textile effluents; however, all of the strategies listed above reduce the proportion of color and other parameters in textile effluent.

Color pollution from the textile and dyestuff industries is a major source of worry for scientists today. The removal of dyes from these industrial effluents has garnered a lot of attention in recent years. Various techniques to deal with man-made environmental risks have been suggested in recent years. As a result, the goal of this study is to conduct a review of the major consequences of industrial dye emission as well as the key bioremediation mechanisms.

Closing water loops in textile production was suggested as the most viable option for creating a circular economy that is sustainable. The central circular water management guideline is to reuse the same water several times in the industrial plant after cleaning it with proper treatment.

Textile wastewater must be cleansed and reused, according to recent scientific and regulatory assessments, due to high water usage in the textile industry, environmental damage from waste elution, and water scarcity. It is important to remember that the average freshwater consumption in textile processing is 150 L per 1 kilogram of product, but it can reach 933 L for 1 kg of output. The global community, affiliated with the legal structure of the European Union or international organizations such as OECD, can see the dramatic need for intervention in the reduction of water consumption in the textile branch.

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